Who wrote it?
Zephaniah 1:1 identifies the author as the Prophet Zephaniah. The name Zephaniah means “defended by God.”
When(ish) was it written?
The book of Zephaniah was written during the reign of King Josiah, likely in the early part of his reign, between 635 and 625 BC.
Why was it written?
Zephaniah’s message of judgment and encouragement contains three major doctrines:
God is sovereign over all nations.
The wicked will be punished and the righteous will be vindicated on the day of judgment.
God blesses those who repent and trust in Him.
Some Key Verses
Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them on the day of the wrath of the Lord. In the fire of his jealousy, all the earth shall be consumed; for a full and sudden end he will make of all the inhabitants of the earth.
– Zephaniah 1:18
Seek the Lord, all you humble of the land, who do his just commands; seek righteousness; seek humility; perhaps you may be hidden on the day of the anger of the Lord.
– Zephaniah 2:3
The Lord your God is in your midst, a mighty one who will save; he will rejoice over you with gladness; he will quiet you by his love; he will exult over you with loud singing.
– Zephaniah 3:17
A Quick Summary
Zephaniah pronounces the Lord’s judgment on the whole earth, on Judah, on the surrounding nations, on Jerusalem and on all nations. This is followed by proclamations of the Lord’s blessing on all nations and especially on the faithful remnant of His people in Judah.
Zephaniah had the courage to speak bluntly because he knew he was proclaiming the Word of the Lord. His book begins with “the word of the Lord” and ends with “says the Lord.” He knew that neither the many gods the people worshiped nor even the might of the Assyrian army could save them. God is gracious and compassionate, but when all His warnings are ignored, judgment is to be expected. God’s day of judgment is frequently mentioned in the Scriptures. The prophets called it the “Day of the Lord.” They referred to various events such as the fall of Jerusalem as manifestations of God’s Day, each of which pointed toward the ultimate Day of the Lord.
The final blessings on Zion pronounced in Zephaniah 3:14-20 are largely unfulfilled, leading us to conclude that these are messianic prophecies that await the Second Coming of Christ to be completed. The Lord has taken away our punishment only through Christ who came to die for the sins of His people (Zephaniah 3:15; John 3:16). But Israel has not yet recognized her true Savior. This is yet to happen (Romans 11:25-27).
The promise of peace and safety for Israel, a time when their King is in their midst, will be fulfilled when Christ returns to judge the world and redeem it for Himself. Just as He ascended to heaven after His resurrection, so will He return and set up a new Jerusalem on earth (Revelation 21). At that time, all God’s promises to Israel will be fulfilled.
What does this mean?
With a few adjustments in names and situations, this prophet of the 7th century BC could stand in our churches today and deliver the same message of judgment of the wicked and hope for the faithful. Zephaniah reminds us that God is offended by the moral and religious sins of His people. God’s people will not escape punishment when they sin willfully. Punishment may be painful, but its purpose may be redemptive rather than punitive. The inevitability of the punishment of wickedness gives comfort in a time when it seems that evil is unbridled and victorious. We have the freedom to disobey God but not the freedom to escape the consequences of that disobedience. Those who are faithful to God may be relatively few, but He does not forget them.
Take a few minutes to read aloud the Scripture from Zephaniah 2:3, 3:3-17, Judges 15:16, Colossians 3:16, and Psalms 96. What verses or ideas stand out to you from these passages? What questions do you have? What “next step” are you considering as a result of your interaction with God’s Word?
What are some songs you remember singing during your childhood? How did you learn them? Who sang along with you?
What are your favorite songs to sing Sundays at FBC? Why are you drawn to those particular songs?
Read Zephaniah 3:16-17. Zephaniah says that the “mighty One who will save” (that’s Jesus) is so filled with joy over being able to save us that He will celebrate with “loud singing.” Take a few moments to imagine the Lord Himself singing over His people. How does God’s rejoicing over you in the Gospel encourage you to rejoice over Him as well?